This is the process of forming a fabric on a loom by interlacing the warp (lengthwise yarns) and the filling (crosswise yarns) perpendicular to each other. The three basic weaves are Plain, Twill, and Satin. All other weaves, no matter how intricate, employ one or more of these basic weaves in their composition. Variations on the basic weaves make a variety of different fabric surfaces and fabric strengths.
A decorative weave is characterized by small figures, usually geometric, that are woven into the fabric structure. Dobbies may be of any weight or compactness, with yarns ranging from very fine to coarse and fluffy. Standard dobby fabrics are usually flat and relatively fine or sheer. This type of weave is typically more expensive due to the limitation of Dobby machinery.
A variation of a basic weave, the satin weave is characterized by long floats of yarn on the face of the fabric. The yarns are interlaced in such a manner that there is no definite, visible pattern of interlacing and, in this manner, a smooth and somewhat shiny surface effect is achieved. The shiny surface effect is further increased through the use of high luster filament fibers found in yarns. A satin weave construction achieves a lustrous fabric face with a dull back.
A variation of the satin weave, sateen fabrics are produced by floating fill yarns over warp yarns. This cloth is made with a 5-end or an 8-shaft satin weave in warp-face or filling-face effects made from yarns with low luster, such as cotton or other staple length fibers. The fabric has a soft, smooth feel and a gentle, subtle luster. Traditional to the home furnishings market are 4×1 sateen fabrics, offering a softer finish and slight sheen to the fabric.
A tricot knit is formed by inter-looping adjacent parallel yarns. The warp beam holds thousands of yards of yarns in a parallel arrangement, and these yarns are fed into the knitting area simultaneously. Tricot knits are soft to the touch and produce a more flexible, stretchy fabric. Found in more luxurious bedding products, tricot knits generally achieve a better fit to the mattress or pillow.
Completely contrary to traditional woven fabrics, non-wovens are a textile structure held together simply by interlocking fibers in a random web. This structure is accomplished by mechanical, chemical, thermal or solvent means of cohesion. Non-wovens are used in product backings, skirting or for basic bedding products, like pillow protectors or mattress encasements.